Dental implant procedure is one of the advanced cosmetic dentistry in which artificial or prosthetic teeth are rooted inside the jawbone through a surgical operation. These implants can work exactly like natural teeth if rooted correctly and securely. Dental implants have high success rate of about 95%, out of which failure occurs in 5%. There are several causes of dental implant failure and failure can cause severe pain and discomfort to the patient.
Dental implants failure can be either early failure or late failure. However, the causes and reasons for failures are same. Early failures might happen soon after the surgery whereas late dental implant failure may happen after months or even years of surgical implant.
Various causes of dental implant failure-
- Smoking- Dental implant failures tend to happen mostly in heavy smokers. Smoking tobacco and nicotine causes a decreased in the flow of oxygen to the bone. Dental implants require sufficient amount of oxygen to bond to the jaw bone, so reduction in the oxygen flow will prevent the implant from bonding properly to the jaw bone. This leads to dental implant failure.
- Medications- Some medications and drugs used to treat certain diseases such as cancer can kill the growing bone cells. When the developing bone cells are killed, the bone’s capacity to bond firmly to the implant is affected and reduced thereby, leading to dental implant failure.
- Titanium allergies- This is one of the rare causes of dental implant failure. Dental implants are known to fail as a result of allergic reaction to titanium and other dental implant prosthetics. Dental implants are made from titanium metals. Patient allergic to titanium can display failure symptoms such as rashes, dermatitis, general pain, swelling, chronic fatigue and inability to heal from infections and wounds.
- Poor quality implants- Poor quality dental implants have risks of breaking or fracturing into pieces thus, posing an infection threat.
- Stress- Stress can put pressure on the implant causing it to move from the jaw. When the dental implant moves from where it was placed, the immune system of the body recognizes the implant as a foreign body and rejection takes place. Rejected implants have to be removed.
- Lack of sufficient jawbone- In patients where there is bone loss due to serious gum infections and diseases, bone grafting has to be done before implanting the implants in the jaw. Any complications arising from the graft can result in failed dental implants. Also poor or weak jawbone takes longer time to grow new jawbone to bond to the implants.
- Infections at the site of implant- One of the causes of dental implant failure is infected jawbone. Any infection of a part of jawbone at the site of implant can make the dental implant become loose and lead to failure. Infections can be due to progressed tooth or gum infection before and after the surgery. Also infections can occur as a result of contamination during the implant procedure or due to use of contaminated graft materials during grafting.
- Medical conditions and health- The overall health of the patient also affects the success of dental implants. Patient should be healthy and free from any health issues such as diabetes, gum diseases, bruxism, vitamin deficiency and other infections. Also patient should not have a habit of smoking.
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